Al-Azhar

KHALIFAH Fatimiah yang menisbatkan sebagai keturunan Rasulullah Muhammad SAW dari garis keturunan Fatimah binti Muhammad dan Ali bin Abi Thalib berkuasa di Afrika Utara dan Mesir tahun 297 Hijriyah atau tahun 909 Miladiyah. Selama lebih 262 tahun berkuasa Dinasti Fatimiah berhasil membangun kehidupan dan peradaban masyarakat yang tinggi.

Basis kekuatannya berawal dari Tunisia setelah memiliki kekuatan cukup, di bawah Khalifah al Mu’izz keturunan keempat Dinasti Fatimiah mengutus panglima Jauhar al Katib as Siqilli dapat menguasai Mesir tahun 969. Ketika itu didirikan kota baru yang disebut al Qahirah (Cairo) yang berarti kemenangan dan kemuliaan. Dinasti Fatimiah menjadinya pusat pemerintahan sekaligus sebagai ibukota Khalifah Fatimiah di masa selanjutnya.
Dinasti Fatimiah mencapai masa kejayaannya di bawah kepemimpinan al Muizz, al Aziz dan al Hakim. Ketika kekhalifahan di bawah al Aziz kemajuan sangat pesat sehingga membangun istana yang mampu menampung 30 ribu tamu sekaligus, termasuk membangun masjid yang sangat megah. Kemajuan juga terjadi dalam bidang perekonomian, pertanian dan industri, tidak ketinggalan dalam bidang kebudayaan juga mengalami kemajuan yang sangat pesat.

Kemajuan sangat pesat terjadi seletan mendirikan Masjid al Azhar yang sekarang dikenal sebagai Jamiat al Azhar (Universitas al Azhar). Selain sebagai pusat peradaban di masyarakat muslim, al Azhar menjadi pusat kajian Islam, pusat perkembangan ilmu dan hasil-hasilnya. Jasa paling penting terhadap peradaban dunia diwariskan Dinasti Fatimiah yang mampu mengembangkan pendidikan, kebudayaan dan peradaban. Sejak saat itu Cairo menjadi pusat peradaban, pusat intelektual muslim dan kegiatan ilmiah dunia.
Universitas al Azhar Cairo sebagai universitas tertua di dunia yang didirikan Jauhar al Katib as Siqilli pada 7 Ramadhan 361 yang bertepatan dengan 22 Juni 972. sampai sekarang memainkan peran penting dalam sejarah peradaban dunia, selama berabad-abad Universitas al Azhar menjadi pusat pendidikan Islam sekaligus pertemuan puluhan ribu mahasiswa muslim dari seluruh dunia.

Dinasti Fatimiah maju karena dukungan kekuatan militer selain itu administrasi pemerintahan yang baik dan perkembangan ilmu. Hal itu memungkinkan stabilitas ekonomi, namun dalam beberapa hal Dinasti Fatimiah memiliki kelemahan seperti polik dalam dan luar negeri. Konflik internal dan perebutan pengaruh menjadi semakin akut ketika menghadapi musuh tentara salib sehingga merasa perlu mendatangkan bala bantuan. Darul Hikmah sebagai pusat pengajaran ilmu kedokteran dan astronomi sehingga muncul tokoh ahli astronomi seperti Ibnu Yunus, Ibnu Haitam seorang ahli fisika dan optik. Pada saat yang sama berdiri Dar al Ilm, perpustakaan yang menyediakan jutaan buku dalam berbagai cabang ilmu.

Di sana dibentuk Majlis Ilmu tempat berkumpulnya sejumlah ilmuwan besar Mesir yang pemikirannya berpengaruh di seluruh dunia Islam saat ini. Melalui Universitas al Azhar, Mesir bermaksud mengembangkan ilmu dan mengembalikan kejayaan masyarakat Islam. Ribuan mahasiswa dikirim ke berbagai pusat peradaban ilmu untuk mengembangkan di dalam negeri sehingga ilmu akan menyebar di masyarakat muslim dari berbagai penjuru dunia.

Pasang surut terjadi di dunia Islam, demikian halnya dengan Universitas al Azhar. Setelah kemajuan pesat sejak Dinasti Fatimiah, mengalami kemunduran di zaman Kerajaan Otsman. Sampai munculnya kaum pembaharu yang dipelopori Muhammad Abduh yang wafat tahun 1905, bersama kawan-kawan dan murid yang meneruskannya, genderang gagasan-gagasannya menggetarkan dunia Islam. Beliau mengembangkan Universitas al Azhar baik dari segi fisik maupun pemikirannya.

Perkembangan lain yang menggembirakan setelah Perang Dunia kedua, di Mesir tumbuh lembaga pendidikan tinggi yang mengkaji berbagai ilmu. Sebut misalnya Universitas Iskandariyah di Iskandariyah dan Universitas Ain Syam. Masih banyak lagi lembaga pendidikan tinggi yang mengkaji ilm hukum, sastra, kedokteran, farmasi, teknik, pertanian, perdagangan dan berbagai cabang ilmu yang lain.

Sumbangan besar yang dapat disaksikan hari ini antara lain bidang arsitektur baik bangunan istana, masjid dan benteng pertahanan lengkap dengan ornamen di dalamnya. Al Qashr al Garb (istana barat) al Qashr asy Syarq (istana timur), Universitas al Azhar dan Masjid al Azhar. Tembok tinggi yang mengelilingi istana lengkap dengan pintu-pintunya, Bab an Nasr (pintu kemenangan), Bab al Fath (pintu pembuka) dan sejumlah masjid yang lain dengan kekhasannya masing-masing.

Saat ini Mesir berada di bawah kekuasaan Jumhiriyah Misr al Arabiyah, Republik Arab Mesir yang terletak di bekas Dinasti Fatimiah, berbatasan dengan Laut Tengah di Utara, Laut Merah di Timur, Sudan di Selatan dan Libya di Barat. Luas wilayahnya mencapai hampir satu juta kilometer persegi, penduduk berjumlah 54 juta jiwa tahun 1990. Sebanyak 90% pendudukan Islam Sunni dengan kelompok penting Mesir, Badui dan Nubia beribukota di Cairo dengan bahasa resmi Arab.

Sungai Nil sebagai sumber penghidupan masyarakat karena lembahnya terkenal sangat subur, sungai yang memanjang 17 ribu kilometer persegi dengan dinding karang setinggi 200-400 meter di kedua sisinya. Delta Nil di bagian Utara Cairo sekitar 23 ribu kilometer persegi merupakan dataran rendah yang sebagian besar berpaya papirus sehingga perekonomian sangat mengandalkan pertanian dengan Bendungan Aswan yang disejak tahun 1970 diambil alih Bendungan Sadd al Ali (bendungan tinggi).

Islam di Mesir mada masa Khalifah Umar bin Khattab, ketika itu diutus Amr bin Ash menduduki dan kemudian diangkat menjadi gubernur tahun 632-660 dan menjadikan kota Fustat (dekat Cairo) sebagai pusat ibukota. Berturut-turut Mesir berada di bawah kekuasaan dinasti dan kekhalifahan yang silih berganti sampai datangnya tentara salib. Dinasti Umayyah, Dinasti Abbasiyah, Dinasti Tulun, Dinasti Ikhsyd, Dinasti Fatimiah, Dinasti Ayubiyah yang ditandai dengan perang salib dan Dinasti Mamluk kemudian Mesir berada di bawah Kerajaan Turki Otsman.

Pada abad berikutnya dimulai dengan pemerintahan Muhammad Ali Pasya ketika Napoleon mendarat di Mesir, kemudian digantikan Said Pasya kemudian sepupunya yang bernama Ismail Pasya. Inggris campur tangan dalam pemerintahan Mesir tahun 1882, namun tetap tunduk pada Otsman hingga 1914. Baru pada 1922 Mesir merdeka dari Inggris, silih berganti kepemimpinan sejak revolusi 23 Juli 1952 sejak Raja Farouk diturunkan panglima perang Muhammad Naguib yang kemudian disingkirkan Gamal Abdul Nasser, digantikan Anwar Sadat yang terbunuh dan digantikan wakilnya Hosni Mubarak hingga sekarang.

Rise of the Fatimids

In the 8th century AD, Egypt and much of the Islamic world were ruled by the Abbasid Chaliphate. This era was the weaker phase of the Caliphate, where princes (and in cases dynasties) in several provinces were the actual rulers, and the Caliphate’s power was superficial. Famous dynasties of the time include the Ikhshidis in Egypt and the Aghlabids in North Africa. The majority of the Moslem population living under the Abbasid rule followed the mainstream Sunni form of Islam. Other sects included the twelver Shiis in Iraq and some parts of Persia, the Zaydi Shiis in Northern Persia and Yemen, and the Kharajites ( al-Khawarij ) scattered in parts of Arabia, Iraq and North Africa.

The political arena was brewing with some underground heretical movements in that time. Most of these movements tried to associate themselves with the prophet’s [PBUH] family in order to draw the attention of masses. These were known to the majority of Moslems with the name of al-Batiniyya , meaning those who adhered to secretive and undeclared beliefs. Many of these Batinis created a multitude of legends about the deceased Ismail ibn Ja’far (a direct descendant of the prophet’s [PBUH] daughter) and proclaimed themselves to be his descendants. The majority of the Batini sects were considered heretic and blasphemous by other Moslems including the twelver and Zaydi Shiis.

One of these movements was that of Abu Abd-Allah who belonged to a secretive Ismailite sect. He succeeded in gaining a large amount of followers in al-Maghreb (Present day Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia), especially within the tribe of Kitama. Abu Abd-Allah propagated a prophecy that the Awaited Guided One (al-Mahdi al-Muntazar) who is a descendant of the prophet [PBUH] has emerged in the Syrian town of Salamiya and that he will come to al-Maghreb to fill the land with justice.

The Guided One whom Abu Abd-Allah called for was none but another member of the same heretic sect called `Ubayd-Allah Sai’d who called himself al-Mahdi. al-Mahdi traveled to al-Maghreb, took over the leadership of Kitama and executed his follower `Ubayd Allah fearing a competition over the leadership of their followers. In a short period of time `Ubayd-Allah was able to conquer by force the whole of al-Maghreb in addition to Tarablus (present day Libya). He made the city of al-Mahdiyya (in present day Tunisia) his capital in 909.

To tarnish his rule with an adorable Islamic name, he claimed to be a descendant of the prophet’s daughter (Fatima [RAA]). Hence, their followers addressed them with the title Fatimiyyin. The dynasty and its ministers to an extreme form of Shiism , while the majority of the population they governed adhered to Sunni Islam. They appointed themselves as the Caliphs over all Moslems in a challenge to the Sunni Abbasids.

The Fatimid Conquest of Egypt

Egypt lied on the eastern border of the newly formed Fatimid empire. Its population consisted mainly of Sunni Muslims who had their religious affiliation with the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad. Most of the Egyptian population followed the Shafi’i school of Islamic jurisprudence. Adherents to other religions included Christians and a small community of Jews.

The Fatimids craved for the banks of the Nile in order to make Egypt their capital province. As early as the time of the first Fatimid Ruler ,`Ubayd Allah , four attempts were made to conquer Egypt in 913, 919, 933 and 936, but all these attempts were repelled by the powerful Ikhishidis who ruled Egypt. After these expeditions failed, the Fatimids had to turn their forces to crush several Maghrebian revolts.

With the death of Kafur the last of the Ikhshidi rulers, Egypt fell into chaos. Several members of the family quarreled among themselves and the road was paved for the waiting Fatimids. The fourth Fatimid Caliph, al-Mu’iz li Din Allah, sent his trusted commander Jawhar al-Siqilli with a large army who found no resistance in conquering Egypt in 969.

As soon as Jawhar arrived, he started in building a new capital for his master known as al-Mansuriyya. It was to be built to the north of three other nearby towns which, in consequence, were Egypt’s capital. These were al-Fustat, al-`Askar and al-Qatai’. When Jawhar’s master al-Mu’iz arrived in Egypt he changed the new city’s name into al-Qahira (Cairo). al-Qahira was to be inhabited by the ruling Fatimid elite as well as their loyal Maghrebian tribes who followed their beliefs and who constituted the main body of the Fatimid army.

Hearing the good news, al-Mu’iz hurried to Egypt and transferred all his ministers, ruling elite and soldiers to the new capital. Common Egyptians were sceptic of the heretic beliefs the new rulers. They were appeased at first by an oath made by Jawhar promising tolerance for all beliefs. This policy soon changed, when al-Mu’iz knew that rumors were spreading in the country about his authenticity of his claim of being a descendant of the prophet [PBUH]. To intimidate skeptics, he made his famous comment saying Whoever wants to know who are my ancestors, here they are (and he drew his sword) and here are my kin (and he showed some jewelry) .

The Fatimid forces of al-Mu’iz marched further eastwards and conquered Palestine, the southern part of Syria and western Arabia. That was the maximum expansion of the Fatimid empire. When the empire grew weaker provinces secceded from the empire returning to the Sunni rule. Secessions started in the west (present day Morocco) and continued until Egypt’s borders. The Seljuk Turks regained Palestine and Arabia to the Abbasid Caliphate and the Fatimids eventually became confined to Egypt.

The Birth of al-Azhar

When Jawhar al-Siqilli planned for the construction of al-Qahira, he drew plans to construct a new large mosque intended to be the centre of prayers for his master al-Mu’iz and his Maghrebite followers. This mosque was first known as Jami’ al-Qahira (The mosque of Cairo). It had one minaret and occupied half the area occupied by the present day al-Azhar mosque.

The name, Jami’ al-Qahira, remained for most of the Fatimid rule of Egypt. It is not known when the name was changed to al-Azhar and even historians differ to the cause of calling it al-Azhar. While some historians attribute the name to the remembrance to Fatima al-Zahra’ [RAA] (the prophet’s [PBUH] daughter), others mention that the mosque was built amidst a number of palaces known as al-Qusur al-Zahira and that the name Azhar was drawn from that name.

Since its establishment al-Azhar was the mosque in which main Friday prayers was conducted, and inhabitants of other nearby towns, Misr (al-Askar and al-Fustat combined) and al-Qatai’, had to flock every Friday to al-Qahira to attend the Friday prayers and listen to the Khutba (The ritual mass addressing preceding the prayers) of the Fatimid Caliph.

The form of the Adhan (The call for prayers) and Khutba in al-Azhar, during the Fatimid era, followed the Shiite model. The mosque remained the official mosque of the Fatimid state for fourty years until the construction of Jami’ al-Hakim (al-Hakim’s mosque) during the reign of the Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim bi Amr Allah.

al-Azhar was also the centre of several celebrations of the Fatimids like the celebration of the prophet’s [PBUH] birthday.

al-Azhar becomes a university

As soon as the al-Azhar was built, al-Mu’iz instructed his friend Ali ibn al-Nu’man to make a halaqa (a tutoring circle) for teaching the Ismaili-Shiite jurisprudence. Ali ibn al-Nu’man belonged to a Maghrebite family who followed the same beliefs of their Fatimid masters. His father wrote a book in Ismaili jurisprudence known as al-Ikhtisar . It was this book that started the Azharite education. The first halaqa took place in 975.

This halaqa was followed by others, which were headed by Ali ibn al-Nu’man’s brothers. So al-Nu’man’s family formed the intellectual elite of the Fatimids and became the first teachers in al-Azhar. The halaqas in al-Azhar were paralleled by others that were present in Egypt before the Fatimid rule. These included halaqas in the mosques of Amr ibn al-As and ibn-Tulun.

In the year 998, al-Azhar moved a further step in becoming an Islamic university. The Fatimid caliph al-`Azeez Billah approved a proposal by his trusted minister Ya’qub ibn Kils to organize the Azharite education. He proposed to allocate a number of regular teachers to the education process in al-Azhar. The future teachers were to be educated by ibn-Kils personally and this system was to be the nucleous of the Azharite academic education. Furthermore these teachers would follow an organized curriculum and they would recieve regular payments from the Fatimid government.

The education in al-Azhar concentrated on the Ismaili-Shiite beliefs, but eventually Arabic grammar, literature and history were included. The historian al-Makrizi states that in the early years of the Fatimid rule, the sectarian education was so strict in al-Azhar that the ownership of a book authored by a Sunni scholar was severly punished. This tradition eased when the Fatimids built another mosque whose school took the lead of Ismaili-Shiite teachings from al-Azhar. This school was Dar al-Hikma .

al-Azhar and Dar al-Hikma

In the year 1005 AD, the sixth Fatimid caliph al-Hakim bi Amr Allah ordered the construction of another mosque in his own name (Jami’ al-Hakim) along with a school called Dar al-Hikma. It was this school which took the lead from al-Azhar (or Jami’ al-Qahira as it was called in that time) in propagating the Ismaili-Shiite teachings.

The main purpose of building Dar al-Hikma in addition to al-Azhar was to instruct the secret beliefs of the heretic sect to selected students, whereas al-Azhar was meant for public education. Nevertheless Dar al-Hikma had a wide scope of sciences that was taught in its halaqas . These sciences included Arabic language, philosophy, astronomy, mathematics, medicine and astrology.

The establishment of Dar al-Hikma lowered the sectarian tone of Azharite education, and non-Ismaili books became tolerated. At the same time the Ismaili-Shiite teaching in al-Azhar became limited to some Shii jurispudence, whereas the extreme forms of Ismailism was transferred to Dar al-Hikma.

The secretive exteremist teachings that were taught in Dar al-Hikma leaked out of the school and its role in converting students to its beliefs leaked and was met by a revolt in the Cairean population. The Fatimids at one time had to close the school and then reopened it after cancelling its secretive courses.

In the years when Dar al-Hikma emerged over al-Azhar as the centre of Fatimid education, several prominent figures who visited Egypt were educated in it. These include the Persian poet and traveller Naser-i-Khusru who had his Ismaili education in Dar al-Hikma and Hassan-i-Sabbah the founder of the Hashashin order in Persia.

Azharite Scholars during the Fatimid Period

Although al-Nu’man family took care of teaching Ismaili-Shiite jurisprudence in al-Azhar, some prominent scholars taught in al-Azhar in the time of the Fatimids specially when the core of the Ismaili teachings were transferred to Dar al-Hikma.

These include al-Hufi the grammarian, Abu Abd-Allah al-Quda’i the Hadith scholar, Ahmad ibn Hashim al-Misri the Imam of al-Qira’at , ibn-Babshad the grammarian and ibn-Barakat the grammarian.

Finance of al-Azhar

After its establishment, al-Azhar was financed directly by the Fatimid caliphs. Eventually the financial system changed and the Fatimid caliphs as well as some of the wealthy members of the Egyptian communities offered their belongings (land, shops, markets, etc.) so that the profit is channeled to al-Azhar’s budget. These belongings were known as al-Ahbas.

 

31 thoughts on “Al-Azhar”

  1. assalamualaikum

    aku baru nemuin ini barusan aja
    kenalan ya untuk semua komunitas yang ada disini
    namaku nuan
    orang bogor
    temenku banyak yang sekolah di Al-azhar kairo
    ada yang alumni siu?

    see you
    wassalam

  2. Salamullah Lakum Ya Ahlu Jannah
    hmm boleh gabung nee,,aq zero asal Lapindo’s city.
    alhmd aq skrg lg kul di Al-azhar cairo,baru 8 bln.
    mohon doanya dari ikhwah semua
    moga dpt husnul khotimah n lancar aza

    ehh,,,tp bener kok
    al-azhar tu univ. ‘KeReN’ coz byk sisi yg gak bisa dipahami ama org
    apalagi ketika ujian kemaren,,,uhhh gak ada ujian di dunia ini
    yang lebih seru dibanding univ al-azhar

    so,,,wat ikhwah semua yg mau crita2 ato nanya2
    ke emailQ az shifr_07@yahoo.com
    jalim ukhuwah islamiyah n sharring experience

  3. sy da temn anak padang Ce namnya LANA da yg kenl kagak yach
    sy sering cahting ma tu anak…;) dia oarag ya cool bangt kok :d oh yaa yg kenl ma lana bilngin “cept balik ke indo” hahahhaahhaha

  4. di manapun kita belajar, kesuksesan tidak akan bisa kita gapai tanpa adanya pengorbanan yang maksimal…kita harus pahami dn resapi betul2…”slamat berjuang di bumi para nabi” Islam menantikan dn merindukanmu….

  5. salam,hai sy bru je jumpa web ni.mcm best plak,most of u indonesian ya? sy dr m’sia.salam perkenalan dr sy 😉

  6. Jd ingEt sM kIsah2nya AyAt-aYat ciNta n kTika ciNta bRtsbiH kArya kAng aBik,yg bNr2 b’bAckgrOund Al-Azhar..
    ^_^

  7. duh,bisa gak yah msk al-azhar di cairo..(?_?)
    iihh..pengen deh..T_T
    tp bhs.arab gw msh blm lancar..u_usedih..

  8. yu….mari…!! kita bareng-bareng di satu apartemen dekat babay di masakin utsman, imdah lh………!!! di belakangnya ada hadiqoh dauliyah. apalagi kita kalau ketemuam di hadiqoh dauly sambil memandang bangunan bermacam-macam sketsa dari berbagai negara. di tunggu lho jawabannya…..!!

  9. salam..aiii sume..
    salam perkenalan dr sy di m’sia..
    sy br je msk web ni..
    byk info dpt..
    sy msh stdy lg skrg..
    sy ada persoalan ckit nk tny tentang cairo/kaherah..
    nk wt assgnmnt tntg cairo..tp sy x thu cite kt cairo..
    kalo ada sesiapa sudi bantu sy sila emailkn ke alamat ini..
    EEN1910@YAHOO.COM..
    tima ksh sume..jmp lg..
    assalamualaikum..

  10. assalamu’alakum…….
    perkenalkan namaku sudin
    aku baru aja kenal yang namanya ilmu nahwu/shorof
    oleh karena itu saya mohon banyak bimbingannya dari para saudara-saudara, karena saya ingin sekali lebih mengenal agama saya(islam) dan membentu belajar di SMA saya. sedangakan baca kitab saJA aku kebingungan sedangakan yang mengenalkan seluk beluk agama saya salah satunya adalah kitab2 yang adadisekitar ………. untuk itu usakan tolong disediakan kajian kitab2 yang membantu belajar saya kalau bisa yang freedowload,akhirkta syukron katsiron.
    wassalamu’alakum

  11. sekarang aku lagi bingung belajar mencari materi I’raf rafak dan ciri2nya, tolongin gua ………
    ada yang masih belum jelas……

  12. enak kali ya,,,di cairo,,,,!!!!
    tapi kayanya bhs arabnya puyeng dah,,,!!!
    di UIN Bandung aja aku kewalahan bhs arabnya,,,!!!

  13. Mikum ka………..
    leh knl nga…………………………..
    ka gmna cra kulx d al Azhar, ……………….
    dah gtu klo masuk IQ nya hrus brapa……………..
    klo orang yang bego bisa masuk nga…………………..
    he he he he he………………………….
    canda kok………………………..
    tpi asli ane pingin kulz d al azhar……………………
    skarng ane kulx d upi jrusan P B arab………………..
    jd itung2 modal buat ke sana…………………………..
    ka bls ya ke FB ane………………………
    malik_jiz@yahoo.co.id
    tau FS methajosh@yahoo.com
    and semua jg boleh kok kirim email sapa ja da yang mau kulx tau dah kulx punya informasi………………………….
    Wasalam Wr Wb………………..
    d tunggu ka

  14. APAKAH ADA KETURUNAN AHLUL BAIT?

    Dlm Al Quran yang menyebut ‘ahlulbait’, rasanya ada 3 (tiga) ayat dan 3 surat.

    1. QS. 11:73: Para Malaikat itu berkata: “Apakah kamu merasa heran tentang ketetapan Allah? (Itu adalah) rahmat Allah dan keberkatan-Nya, dicurahkan atas kamu, hai ahlulbait. Sesungguhnya Allah Maha Terpuji lagi Maha Pemurah”.

    Ayat ini jika dikaitkan dengan ayat sebelumnya, maka makna ‘ahlulbait’ adalah terdiri dari isteri dari Nabi Ibrahim.

    2. QS. 28:12: Dan Kami cegah Musa dari menyusu kepada perempuan-perempuan yang mau menyusukan(nya) sebelum itu; maka berkatalah Saudara Musa: ‘Maukahkamu aku tunjukkan kepadamu ‘ahlulbait’ yang akan memeliharanya untukmu, dan mereka dapat berlaku baik kepadanya?

    Ayat ini jika dikaitkan dengan ayat sebelumnya, maka makna ‘ahlulbait’ adalah meliputi Ibu kandung Nabi Musa As. atau ya Saudara kandung Nabi Musa As.

    3. QS. 33:33: “…Sesungguhnya Allah bermaksud hendak menghilangkan dosa dari kamu ‘ahlulbait’ dan membersihkan kamu sebersih-bersihnya”.

    Ayat ini jika dikaitkan dengan ayat sebelumnya QS. 33: 28, 30 dan 32, maka makna para ahlulbait adalah para isteri Nabi Muhammad SAW.

    Sedangkan ditinjau dari sesudah ayat 33 yakni QS. 33:34, 37 dan 40 maka penggambaran ahlulbaitnya mencakup keluarga besar Nabi Muhammad SAW. yakni para isteri dan anak-anak beliau.

    Jika kita kaitkan dengan makna ketiga ayat di atas dan bukan hanya QS. 33:33, maka lingkup ahlul bait tersebut sifat dan maknanya menjadi universal terdiri dari:

    1. Kedua orang tua Saidina Muhammad SAW, sayangnya kedua orang tua beliau ini disaat Saidina Muhammad SAW diangkat sbg ‘nabi’ dan rasul sudah meninggal terlebih dahulu.

    2. Saudara kandung Saidina Muhammad SAW, tapi sayangnya saudara kandung beliau ini, tak ada karena beliau ‘anak tunggal’ dari Bapak Abdullah dengan Ibu Aminah.

    3. Isteri-isteri beliau.

    4. Anak-anak beliau baik perempuan maupun laki-laki. Khusus anak lelaki beliau yang berhak menurunkan ke-‘nasaban’-nya, sayang tak ada yang hidup sampai anaknya dewasa, sehingga anak lelakinya tak meninggalkan keturunan.

    Bagaimana tentang pewaris tahta ‘ahlul bait’ dari Bunda Fatimah?. Ya jika merujuk pada QS. 33:4-5, jelas bahwa Islam tidaklah mengambil garis nasab dari perempuan kecuali bagi Nabi Isa Al Masih yakni bin Maryam.

    Lalu, apakah anak-anak Bunda Fatimah dengan Saidina Ali boleh kita anggap bernasabkan kepada nasabnya Bunda Fatimah?. ya jika merujuk pada Al Quran maka anak Bunda Fatimah dengan Saidina Ali tidaklah bisa mewariskan nasab Saidina Muhammad SAW.

    Kalaupun kita paksakan, bahwa anak Bunda Fatimah juga ahlul bait, artinya kita mau mengambil garis dari perempuannya (Bunda Fatimah), maka untuk selanjutnya yang dijadikan patokan nasab seharusnya pemegang waris tahta ahlul bait diambil dari anak perempuannya bukan dari anak lelakinya seperti Fatimah dan juga Zainab, bukan Hasan dan Husein sbg penerima warisnya.

    Dengan demikian sistim nasab yang diterapkan itu tidan sistim nasab berzigzag, setelah nasab perempuan lalu lari atau kembali lagi ke nasab laki-laki, ya seharusnya diambil dari nasab perempuan seterusnya.

    Bagaimana Saidina Ali bin Abi Thalib, anak paman Saidina Muhammad SAW, ya jika merujuk pada ayat-ayat ahlul bait pastilah beliau bukan termasuk kelompok ahlul bait. Jadi, anak Saidina Ali bin Abi Thalib baik anak lelakinya mapun perempuan, otomatis tidaklah dapat mewarisi tahta ‘ahlul bait’.

    Kesimpulan dari tulisan di atas, bahwa pewaris tahta ‘ahlul bait’ yang terakhir hanya tinggal bunda Fatimah. Berarti anaknya seperti Saidina Hasan dan Husein maupun yang perempuan bukanlah pewaris tahta AHLUL BAIT.

  15. miQum ka’…., aku pngen banged ka’ bsa kulz d kairo….
    kira” bsa gag yah,,,,..?
    gmna cara’a,,.???

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